The introduction of Solidity

Solidity is a JavaScript-like object-oriented language for developing smart contracts. It is cross-platform, but in practice, it is mainly used on Ethereum.

Solidity was created in 2014 by a team of programmers led by Christian Wrightwiener based on the idea of Gavin Wood. The similarity of the syntax to JavaScript contributed to the rapid adaptation of developers who previously developed similar protocols on it. Solidity supports inheritance, including multiple inheritances and C3 linearization.

The main difference between Solidity and Java is that the first one is an inertly typed language, only return types are dynamic. C++ and Python also have had an impact on the language. 

Solidity allows building contracts for applications such as voting, crowdfunding, blind auctions, and multi-signature wallets.

It’s important to establish contact using the latest launched version of Solidity. 

The reason is that cutting variations along with innovations and bug fixes are presented systematically. If you wish to work with Ethereum and smart contracts, you definitely should learn Solidity.

Why learn Solidity?

There are several programming languages that allow developing smart contracts. Among them are Vyper, Golang, Java and Solidity. Let’s see what are the reasons to prefer Solidity. It is

  1. Functional. Solidity is the most used language to a new developer when it comes to programming smart contracts. This mostly takes care of money-related calls (such as auctions, crowdfunding, or wallets with a multi-signature feature). Nevertheless, you can build other decentralized applications too (say, for voting).
  2. Promising: the world invests billions on blockchain solutions every year. While most of it originates from financial corporations, all classes of businesses employ Blockchain. So, there is a huge demand for skilled Solidity developers 
  3. Flexible: you can use a Remix online compiler or download a command-line compiler on your PC to compose smart contracts. Both of these choices are absolutely free.
  4. Improving: Solidity language updates, such as new highlights and bug fixes, are offered constantly.

What can You do on Solidity? 

Solidity is the backbone of the Ether network. No Solidity means no Ether. Here’s what you can do with this programming language:

  1. Dapps. The programming language allows developers to formulate their own decentralized applications. You can download all kinds of apps from the app store, from games to fitness and banking. Dapps are the same. The main difference is that they are open source and do not have mediators. Just as the apps in the Apple App Store are built to run on iOS, Dapps on Ethereum are built to operate on Solidity.
  2. Smart contracts. Dapps have shreds of code known as smart contracts. They help people exchange money, stocks, property, and almost anything of value, subject to individual orders. This eliminates the demand for an expensive third party such as a notary.
  3. ICO. Developers can also create their personal tokens and launch ICOs right on Ethereum. These symbols are known as ERC20 tokens.

Useful features of Solidity

Solidity provides inheritance properties in contracts including multiple level inheritance properties. Inheritance is described as the capability of a class to derive properties and characteristics from another class. It’s an essential point of Object-Oriented Programming.

Smart contracts present a safe, simple and reliable medium for various sources which have involvement of two sides to make a deal on something.

Contracts support complex member variables in hierarchical mapping and structures.

Multiple type-safe functions are also supported in Solidity through facilitating ABI (Application Binary Interface). 

Solidity also has many disadvantages. Among them are constraints in changing smart contracts, unavailability of Standard Library (Every language has its library to perform functions), the fact that data is available only from transactions. Although the language has these limitations, it offers alternative ways to solve the problems. For instance, data insufficient problems can be addressed using Oracle systems. The team is working on language improvement. 

Solidity and EVM

Ethereum is an open-source, decentralized platform for making smart contracts. It suggests a more practic way of forming and operating composite applications like financial exchanges and insurance contracts on a shared network. The heart of Ethereum is the Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM), which carries out the key of random algorithmic complexity. Solidity is created for developing smart contracts that operate on the EVM.

Solidity contracts are first arranged to bytecode which is ultimately presented on the EVM.

Similar to other blockchains, Ethereum includes a peer-to-peer network protocol. The Ethereum blockchain database is maintained and updated by several nodes tied to the system. Every node on the network runs the EVM and executes the same set of instructions.

The Ethereum platform itself is featureless or value-agnostic. It is up to organizations and developers to decide what it should be used for. However, certain application types benefit more than others from Ethereum’s capabilities. Specifically, Ethereum is suited for applications that automate direct interaction between peers or facilitate coordinated group action across a chain. For instance, applications for coordinating peer-to-peer marketplaces, or the automation of complex financial contracts.

Solidity Smart Contract Basics

A contract in form of Solidity is a combination of code (its functions) and data (its position) that dwells at a particular place on the Ethereum blockchain. 

Solidity is a statically typed language, which means that the type of each variable (state and local) needs to be specified. Solidity provides several elementary types which can be combined to form complex types. Besides, types can cooperate with each other in expressions containing operators. 

Smart contracts are where all the business logic of our statement exists – all variables and functions associate with a contract, and this will be the beginning stage of all projects.

Solidity Operators

In any programming language, operators play an important role. They create a foundation for programming. Operators are symbols that tell the compiler to perform specific mathematical or logical manipulations. Similarly, the functionality of Solidity is also incomplete without the use of operators. Operators allow users to perform different operations on operands. Solidity supports the following types of operators based upon their functionality.

  1. Arithmetic Operators allow performing arithmetic or mathematical operations.
  2. Relational Operators are used to compare two values. 
  3. Logical Operators are used for combining two or more conditions. 
  4. Bitwise Operators operators work at a bit level used to perform bit-level operations.
  5. Assignment operators are for the assignment of value to a variable. 
  6. Conditional Operator. It is a ternary operator that evaluates the expression first then checks the condition for return value

Remix IDE

Remix is a Solidity IDE (Integrated Development Environment) that’s used to write, compile and debug Solidity code. The term IDE itself represents an application with a set of tools meant to help programmers to solve different tasks concerning software development. 

You can access the Remix IDE in different ways: online, via a web browser like Chrome, from a locally installed copy, or from Mist (the Ethereum Dapp browser).

Closing thoughts

Research on smart contract programming’s evaluation is pretty young and there is still a long-term journey ahead to achieve its maturity. Lots of developments and updates are combined for Ethereum. This includes proof-of-stake and sharding, which will promote the blockchain. 

So, it’s natural that there are problems, errors and obstacles on the way, but one thing is sure, Solidity will remain one of the most practised languages for developing Smart Contracts. 

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